Chichilticale

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cuzzinjack
Part Timer
Posts: 61
Joined: Mon Jun 13, 2011 7:33 pm

Chichilticale

Postby cuzzinjack » Sun Jan 22, 2017 1:57 pm

Even though the discovery of the location of the Peralta mines is very significant, there is a much bigger mystery:

After Spain looted most of the Aztec and Inca gold between 1520 and 1533, it was noted that the Aztec items were found to have a very high purity and were exceptionally beautiful. Some of the Spaniards realized the importance of this because neither the Aztecs or the Incas knew how to part gold and silver, which are typically found together in varying degrees. The high purity of the gold, some knew, was a clue to the source of the magnificent and plentiful Aztec gold, which was never found. Below is a photo of Aztec vs. Inca gold:

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The Spanish had heard plenty of stories after conquering Mexico to know that the source of the gold was north of New Spain, and Cabeza de Vaca’s story in 1536 of his 8-year journey from Florida and the tale he had heard of the “Seven cities of Cibola” located far to the north of New Spain pushed the Spaniards lust for gold to the limit.

In 1539, Viceroy Mendoza of Mexico City enlisted Father Marcos de Niza to explore the western coast of Mexico to ensure that Mexico was not an island, and to investigate the possibility of the existence of wealthy cities to the north.

Esteban, whom was with Cabeza de Vaca on the 8-year journey from Florida, accompanied Niza on this expedition. Father Niza had “rock star” status among the native people at the beginning of the trek in northern Sinaloa and Southern Sonora because he joyfully brought news that the brutal slave trader Guzman was banished by Viceroy Mendoza. Dozens, and perhaps hundreds of natives accompanied the Niza group as bearers to show their admiration.

Niza’s account of the expedition was less than stellar. Below is a modern-day piecing together of the places that that Niza/Esteban passed through on the way to Cibola as ciphered by Nallino:

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Source: http://nallino.net/marc.html

The Niza party spent little time investigating the coast after they saw it turn west on the northern end of the Gulf of California (Nallino thinks that he did not go to the coast at all), and travelled to the site of the current city of Nogales and turned to follow the north-flowing Santa Cruz River. It was here at Nogales that Esteban and Niza parted, and Esteban began his race to be the first to discover Cibola, with Niza following days and eventually even more than a week behind.

The trails along the Santa Cruz river and San Pedro (parallels the Santa Cruz) that stretched to Cibola were major trade routes well known to the local natives and beyond. As one writer put it, “Niza was not hacking it through the bush”. Niza reported occupied farming villages along the Santa Cruz about every mile.

The next site that Niza reports is Chichilticale, at the Casa Grande ruins (see above Nallino map). Other authors in the past have also concluded that Chichilticale was Casa Grande. This is Nahuatl (Aztec) meaning “red house”. The next spot he reports on his journey is Cibola only 15 days later; this is 275 miles away as the crow flies. This amounts to a serious traveling speed, about 20 miles per day. This is believable considering the other dates, but herein is the problem….. Niza, a man of God, never saw Cibola………… even though he said he did. Niza reports that he saw Cibola from a distance and it was as big as Mexico City. He said they turned back when he met the fleeing Indians that had accompanied Esteban because they described how he was killed by the Zunis.

The next year 1540, Niza becomes the guide for the Coronado expedition, about 1300 people. They travelled up the San Pedro, making a hard right near present day Tombstone. Then to Chichilticale #2 at the Kuykendall ruins at western foot of the Chiricahua Mountains and over present-day Apache Pass. It is amazing how the stage was already set in 1540 for what was to come in 400 years later! (See map below for routes of the Niza and Coronado expeditions and map of location of Chichilticale #2).

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Source: http://nallino.net/marc.html

This is a closeup of the Chichilticale #2 area:

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Coronado expressed his disappointment when seeing the Kuykendall ruins, thinking they were Chichilticale (Note: Niza had guided him there). They were very small ruins. As Nallino wrote (paraphrasing); Chichilticale must have been a well-known place, before either the Niza or Coronado expeditions. And how did it get an Aztec name?, and why was Coronado disappointed? It is important that this was the only place described on the Niza or Coronado expedition that had an Aztec name.

It was proven by an archeological dig that Coronado did indeed camp at the Kuykendall ruins with the artifacts representing what a large party would have left behind. Two of the most important items found were an iron crossbow bolt-arrowhead and a coin of that time period.

Nallino makes a good argument that there were two Chichilticale: the one that Niza puts in his report of his original expedition with the location described almost as a riddle (Casa Grande), and the second one at the Kuykendall ruins south of Wilcox that he passed by on his trip back to Mexico. After reading the information available, it appears that Niza travelled north on the Santa Cruz River, and travelled south along the north flowing but more eastern San Pedro on his return trip (so he knew where to take Coronado the next year).

When the Coronado expedition reached Cibola and its insignificance was learned, Niza became a most-hated individual and possibly the only thing that saved his life was that he was a Catholic Priest. Niza was then replaced by Father Pedro de Castaneda and he wrote that by the time Esteban reached Cibola Niza had not yet left Chichilicale, http://www.southwestcrossroads.org/record.php?num=385
and, Castaneda wrote that Niza was 60 leagues (180 miles) from Cibola when he met the fleeing natives that accompanied Esteban and that was the closest that he got to Cibola.

Niza was a respected and honored man up until Cibola was reached by the Coronado expedition. The Coronado expedition was privately funded, and some members never recovered from the debt they assumed to go on the expedition. Niza spent the rest of his life in supposed shame.
The larger question is: Why did Niza lie? He had a good reason to turn back before he reached Cibola, and no one could have blamed him for returning. Why did he concoct the tale that the Zuni pueblo was as large as Mexico City?

My theory is this: The Goldfield Arizona mining district was the source of the Aztec Gold. These are my reasons and sub-theories:

1) Gold from the supergene enrichment of gold-bearing sulphide ore deposits commonly has a purity of over 90%. The rare coincidence of brine lakes that covered the Goldfield District during and after the sulphide ore was deposited was ideal for the creation of gold chloride and the deposition of supergene gold. This type of gold was found in the modern-day Goldfield in large amounts. The pits where it was mined before 1520 were simply filled in.
2) Modern-day explorationists did not give these pit locations the time of day because the gold bearing outcrops had been removed (but the alteration zones remained).
3) Several pit locations have been found seismically, although it is not known what century the pits were from.
4) Niza had seen the horrors of the Spanish occupation and the thousands of Indians that died in slavery. He knew that the discovery of the gold deposits would result in more slavery and death. He knew that the peaceful native people he met along the Santa Cruz (Pima), would be no more.
5) It is theorized that Niza lied about the location of Chichilticale to save the Pima and others and tried to keep the Coronado expedition as far away from Superstition mountain as possible (because of its odd and possibly renowned shape). It can only be speculated what tales and clues circulated at that time, and “Chichilticale” seems to have been one of them.
6) Superstition Mountain (with the Goldfield District is at its foot) can be seen from Casa Grande ruins.
7) Niza had a week or more that was unaccounted for (the 60 leagues). It is theorized Niza went on an extended exploration and mapping trip at the Goldfield District.
8) Niza was a Franciscan, not a Jesuit. If he had been a Jesuit, there may have been an entirely different outcome. Niza may even have showed his superiors what was found, and the consensus may have been to divert attention away from the area.
9) In 1691, Father Kino, a Jesuit, recorded his first trip into Arizona. He reports visiting the Casa Grande ruins in 1694. It is theorized that because he had befriended and helped the Pima, they told him of the place where the Pima-hated Apaches had mined the gold a 150 years before. Below is a 1701 Kino map. The area held by the Apache is shown north of the Gila River. Superstition Mountain can be seen.

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10) Kino, being a Jesuit businessman, took a different tack. Rather than say anything to the Spanish government, he cut a deal with the Peralta’s. They would mine it, play it down, and give the Jesuits their cut.
11) The Apaches were never enslaved. The Peralta’s paid them off handsomely. In the end, when it was known the Peraltas were never coming back, they were slaughtered and their goods were taken.
12) It is theorized that the Goldfield District was mined well before the Spanish invasion of Mexico. At the Casa Grande museum, a “rock crusher” is on display. The Hohokam didn’t mine, but the theory is presented that the below item was taken from the nearby mines. The line across the item is a shadow. Seen up close, this item is believed to be technology that was not known to the Hohokam. It weighs an estimated 30 pounds, and would be for crushing ore, not pottery.

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13) An xrf (x-ray fluorescence) test (handheld unit) could easily prove or disprove if the my theory is true. Even though there are only a couple of handfuls of Aztec gold that remain in its original state, it does exist. An xrf of Aztec gold probably exists already.

cuzzinjack
Part Timer
Posts: 61
Joined: Mon Jun 13, 2011 7:33 pm

Re: Chichilticale

Postby cuzzinjack » Sun Feb 12, 2017 7:06 pm

Dovetailing with the Chichilticale story is the Manuel Alejandro Peralta map from 1753.

Using the same map style of the Peralta-Fish and the Peralta Stone Maps, the map brings the outlier features in close to the central focus area of the map. A copy of the map with someone’s English translation is below:

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The most important link to the Chichilticale story that is presented in the map is the “footprint trail” that is labeled. Why would it state specifically that the trail was made by feet? Maybe because the natives that had made it had no horses, or wheels? The Mesoamerican trail system extended up the Santa Cruz to Chichilticale #1, up the San Pedro river, up the Gila and up to Cibola. The idea is presented here that the trail system extended from Chichilticale #1 to what is now known as the Goldfield mining district and that portions of the trail were still visible in 1753. It is theorized that Father Niza’a party hid or destroyed a part of this very-travelled trail.

Across the top of the map is the title “Gvente de Ona del Rio Salado Del Norte”. The first word is “Gvente”, an older form of a Spanish/Portuguese word that is still used in Brazil and means “esteemed people”. The third word is “Ona”, and is Latin for “district”. The rest is Spanish. The full translation would be “Esteemed People of the Salt River District of the North.”

Campo Trabajoros and Campo Trabajores are Spanish for the “men’s workers camp” and the “women’s workers camp”, respectively. Considering the separation of the men and women, the Pima revolt that swept Arizona in 1751, and the date on the map of 1753, it is apparent the Peralta’s kept mining through the Pima revolt because they were not using slaves?

In regards to the outlying features that are brought in close to the central theme of the map, the mines, it appears that it was important for Manuel Alejandro Peralta to show the year-round sources of water for the mines and workers. Campo Trabajores is Government Well, Campo Trabajoros is First Water Ranch in First Water Canyon, and the Ojo Aguila or “Eagle Spring” is Hackberry Spring. Below is a photo of the hole in the rock above Hackberry Spring taken from the middle of the oasis:

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After re-evaluating some features in the field, is it thought that the mines shown on the Manuel Alejandro Peralta map were are mixture of pits and underground mines; the underground mines are labeled with the names of the people that were in charge of developing them.

cuzzinjack


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